REVISTA INTERCAMBIO Revista Intercambio es-ES REVISTA INTERCAMBIO 2368-7568 Student and Teacher Evaluation around the Americas <p align="LEFT">In issue Number 9 of Intercambio we share articles which analyse the diverse forms of evaluation being applied in the Americas, as well as strategies of resistance by labour and social movements involved with public education.</p> EDITORIAL COMMITTEE ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-21 2017-12-21 9 1 1 Questioning PISA: examine the purpose, not just the rankings <p align="LEFT">Every three years the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development releases the results of international standardized testing it conducts in dozens of countries around the world. And every release of the test results creates a global explosion of comments on the state of education--most of them negative. The publication of the 2015 test results in December 2016 fits the pattern. Politicians from the few countries that top the tables will pat themselves on the back for their schools doing well. Most will find their countries further down the list and will point fingers and use the results to support policy proposals they claim will produce better future results.</p> Larry Kuehn ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-21 2017-12-21 9 2 2 Cultural diversity: a human right at risk from standardized evaluation <p align="LEFT">Since ancient times, societies have learned to arrange their ideas based on what they want for the continuity of personal, family and community life. What is important for them makes sense for both the present and the future. This is how the training and preparation of future generations is constructed. This constant construction is reflected in the attitudes and production that contribute to the continuity of life based on the present context.</p> Julián Jiménez Ramírez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-21 2017-12-21 9 7 7 The Role of Evaluation in the Brazilian Education System <p align="LEFT">As a result of the reforms to the Brazilian state implemented in 1990s, educational evaluation policies have gained more and more centrality. These policies are shaping the education system under the logic of the market and are shifting state responsibilities into the hands of civil society.</p><p align="LEFT">The reformed state in its role of regulator establishes all the processes for the functioning of society (including the education system), decentralizes actions to implement new policies, establishes objectives, conditions funding based on reached goals and establishes an evaluation system that can guarantee ‘expected results’.</p> Olgaíses Cabral Maués ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-21 2017-12-21 9 12 12 Reflections on aspects of teacher evaluation in Ecuador <p><strong>For many years the National </strong><span style="font-size: medium;">Teachers’ Union(UNE) has demanded that there be comprehensive education evaluation systems in Ecuador. They challenged governments to present their proposals and contrast them with what had been achieved. Of course, governments never wanted to bring to light their demagogy and inconsistencies. Not even in the projects with external debt did they use comprehensive evaluations that demonstrated an improvement in education. At the end of the World Bank’s EB/PRODEC project, it was pointed out: <em>Unfortunately, to date there is no comprehensive evaluation that allows us to understand and assess in a complete manner the main achievements and difficulties that this model’s implementation has had.</em></span></p><p><em><span style="font-size: medium;">Previous missions recommended carrying out such an evaluation</span></em></p> Edgar Isch L. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-21 2017-12-21 9 19 19 Pathways, limits and lessons of the Stop the SIMCE Campaign in Chile <p align="LEFT">It has been almost 30 years since the first application in Chile of the SIMCE (the Education Quality Measurement System), one of the oldest standardized tests in Latin America. Its validity has been based on a complex interaction of interests that have strengthened it to become the main regulator of the Chilean education system (Campos et al, 2014). We can trace its origins to the dictatorship, and its continued development to democratically elected governments, both those on the centre-left and on the right (OPECH, 2005).</p><p align="LEFT">This political and technical consensus on the need for and appropriateness of a standardized test has been completely disassociated from the reality of schools. We can summarize the main consequences of the tests on school life as: student and teacher stress, the pressure to achieve better results, the selection of and discrimination against students who do not achieve high results and the concentration of teaching on Spanish and Mathematics. On the other hand, the observable effects on the education system as a whole have included: increased privatization of services in order to increase results, a decrease in hours spent on or the complete elimination of some subjects in favour of dedicating more time to those subjects that are measured, the hegemony of the SIMCE over the education research agenda and disproportionate spending on the development, application and improvement of the tool (Docencia, 2009; Inzunza, 2014).</p> Jorge Inzunza ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-21 2017-12-21 9 23 23 Teacher union resistance to the onslaught of standardized evaluation in Argentina <p align="LEFT"><span style="font-family: MinionPro-Bold; font-size: x-large;"><span style="font-family: MinionPro-Bold; font-size: x-large;"><strong>In Argentina, since the </strong></span></span><span style="font-family: MinionPro-Regular; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: MinionPro-Regular; font-size: medium;">1980s and with increased emphasis during the decade of the 90s, standardized evaluation took hold in order to measure students’ learning in accordance with the “suggestions” of international agencies.</span></span></p><p align="LEFT"><span style="font-family: MinionPro-Regular; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: MinionPro-Regular; font-size: medium;">From the beginning, the Confederation of Argentine Education Workers (CTERA) raised questions around this way of conceiving evaluation, pointing out that it reduces the education process to a simple “measurement of results”, placing the full responsibility on students, teachers and schools.</span></span></p> Miguel Duhalde ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-21 2017-12-21 9 28 28 "Teacher evaluation": The solution to problem in education or an excuse to privatize it? As in the rest of the world, the governments of our region are presenting “Evalua-tion” as the solution to the low quality of education in some of our countries, in strict adherence to the recipes dictated by international organizations. In Peru, this “evaluation” is in full swing, but there has not yet been a single result that points to a higher quality of education. It has only justified the massive laying off of teachers. Hamer Villena ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-21 2017-12-21 9 32 32 Standardized assessment: a business in the time of cognitive capitalism Education  is no  stranger  to the  changes  that  are  shaping the system of world capitalism. For those betting on the digital information and knowledge economies, it is seen as a gold mine for cognitive capitalism. Standardized  assessments  drive  these  economies  by  creating a need for training, consultancy and advisory services and  by allowing  the  flow  of labour  competencies  from the private sector to the public and redirecting public resources back into the business world. Lev Moujahid Velazquez Barriga ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-21 2017-12-21 9 36 36 Standardized Testing in Ontario – Politicizing Quality and Accountability in Public Education <p>In  1995,  the  people  of  Ontario elected a conservative government whose platform was based on a simple slogan – the Common Sense Revolution.   After  five  years  of  economic  decline  in Ontario and in much of North America, citizens had started to buy into the conservative agenda of cutting government  spending,  getting  public  servants  to  do more  with  less,  and  sharply  increasing  the  need  for accountability for every public dollar spent.</p> Gary Fenn Domenic Bellissimo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-21 2017-12-21 9 43 43